Betrand Russell
                       The Independent Review, July 1904 (excerpted...)

    Of all the studies by which men acquire citizenship of the intellectual commonwealth, no single one is so indispensable as the study of the past.  To know how the world developed to the point at which our individual memory begins; how the religions, the institutions, the nations among which we live, became what they are; to be acquainted with the great of other times, with customs and beliefs differing widely from our own - these things are indispensable to any consciousness of our position, and to any emancipation for the accidental circumstances of our education.  It is not only to the historian that history is valuable, not only to the professed student of archives and documents, but to all who are capable of a contemplative survey of human life. But the value of history is so multiform that those to whom some one of its sides appeals with special force are in constant danger of forgetting all others.

      History is valuable, to begin with, because it is true; and this, though not the whole of its value, is the foundation and condition of all the rest. That all knowledge, as such, is in some degree good, would appear to be at least probable; and the knowledge of every historical fact possesses this element of goodness, even if it posses no other....

      ...Another and a greater utility, however, belongs also to history. It enlargens the imagination, and suggests possibilities of action and feeling which would not have occurred to an uninstructed mind. It selects from past lives the elements which were significant and important; it fills our thoughts with splendid examples, and with the desire for greater ends than unaided reflection would have discovered. It relates the present to the past, and thereby the future to the present.  It makes visible and living the growth and greatness of nations, enabling us to extend our hopes beyond the span of our lives. In all these ways, a knowledge of history is capable of giving to statesmanship, and to our daily thoughts, a breadth and scope unattainable by those whose view is limited to the present.

      What the past does for us may be judged, perhaps, by the consideration of those younger nations whose energy and enterprise are winning the envy of Europe.  In them we see developing a type of man, endowed with all the hopefulness of the Renaissance or the Age of Pericles, persuaded that his more vigorous efforts can quickly achieve whatever proved too difficult for the generations that preceded him.  Ignorant and contemptuous of the aims that inspired these generations, unaware of the complex problems that they attempted to solve, his rapid success in comparatively simple achievements encourages his confident belief that the future belongs to him.  But to those who have grown up surrounded by monuments of men and deeds whose memory they cherish, there is a curious thinness about the thoughts and emotions that inspire this confidence; optimism seems to be sustained by a too exclusive pursuit of what can be easily attained; and hopes are not transmuted into ideals by the habit of appraising current events by their relation to the history of the past. Whatever is different from the present is despised.  That among those who contributed nothing to the dominion of Mammon great men lived, that wisdom may reside in those whose thought are not dominated by the machine, is incredible to this temper of mind.  Action, success, change, are its watchwords; whether the action is noble, the success in a good cause, or the change an improvement in anything except wealth, are questions which there is no time to ask.

Against this spirit, whereby all leisure, all care for the ends of life, are sacrificed to the struggle to be first in a worthless race, history and the habit of living with the past are the surest antidotes; and in our age, more than ever before, such antidotes are needed.

      The record of great deeds is a defeat of Time; for it prolongs their power through many ages after they and their authors have been swallowed by the abyss of the non-existent.  And, in regard to the past, where contemplation is not obscured by desire and the need for action, we see, more clearly than in the lives about us, the value for good and evil, of the aims men have pursued and the means they have adopted. It is good, from time to time, to view the present as already past, and to examine what elements it contains that will add to the world's store of permanent possessions, that will live and give life when we and all our generation have perished.  In the light of this contemplation all human experience is transformed, and whatever is sordid or personal is purged away. And, as we grow in wisdom, the treasure-house of the ages opens to our view; more and more we learn to know and love the men through whose devotion all this wealth has become ours. Gradually, by the contemplation of great lives, a mystic communion becomes possible, filling the soul like music from an invisible choir.  Still, out of the past, the voices of heroes call us.  As, from a loft promontory, the bell of the ancient cathedral, unchanged since the day when Dante returned from the kingdom of the dead, still sends its solemn warning across the waters, so their voice still sounds across intervening sea of time; still, as then, its calm deep tones speak to the solitary tortures of cloistered aspiration, putting the serenity of things eternal in place of the doubtful struggle against ignoble joys and transient pleasures.  Not by those about them were they heard; but they spoke to the winds of heaven, and the winds of heaven tell the tale to the great of later days.  The great are not solitary; out of the night come the voices of those who have gone before, clear and courageous; and so through the ages they march, a mighty procession, proud, undaunted, unconquerable.  To join in this glorious company, to swell the immortal paeon of those whom fate could not subdue - this may not be happiness; but what is happiness to those whose souls are filled with that celestial music?  To them is given what is better than happiness: to know the fellowship of the great, to live in the inspiration of lofty thoughts, and to be illuminated in every perplexity by the fire of nobility and truth.

      But history is more than the record of individual men, however great: it is the province of history to tell the biography, not only of men, but of Man; to present the long procession of generations as but the passing thoughts of one continuous life; to transcend their blindness and brevity in the slow unfolding of the tremendous drama in which all play their part.  In the migrations of races, in the birth and death of religions, in the rise and fall of empires, the unconscious units, without any purpose beyond the moment, have contributed unwittingly to the pageant of the ages; and, from the greatness of the whole, some breath of greatness breathes over all who participated in the march.  In this lies the haunting power of the dim history beyond written records.  There, nothing is known but the cloudy outlines of huge events; and, of all the separate lives that came and went, no memory remains.  Through unnumbered generations, forgotten sons worshipped at the tombs of forgotten fathers, forgotten mothers bore warriors whose bones whitened the silent steppes of Asia.  The clash of arms, the hatreds and oppressions, the blind conflicts of dumb nations, are all still, like a distant waterfall; but slowly, out of the strife, the nations that we know emerged, with a heritage of poetry and piety transmitted from the buried past.

    And this quality, which is all that remains of pre-historic times, belongs also to the later periods where the knowledge of details is apt to obscure the movement of the whole.  We, too, in all our deeds, bear our part in a process of which we cannot guess the development: even the obscurist are actors in a drama of which we know only that it is great.  Whether any purpose that we value will be achieved, we cannot tell; but the drama itself, in any case, is full of Titanic grandeur.

    This quality it is the business of the historian to extract from the bewildering multitude of irrelevant details. From old books, wherein the loves, the hopes, the faiths of bygone generations lie embalmed, he calls pictures before our minds, pictures of high endeavors and brave hopes, living through his care, in spite of failure and death.  Before all is wrapped in oblivion, the historian must compose afresh, in each succeeding age, the epitaph upon the life of Man.

      The past alone is truly real: the present is but a painful, struggling birth into the immutable being of what is no longer. Only the dead exist fully.  The lives of the living are fragmentary, doubtful, and subject to change; but the lives of the dead are complete, free from the sway of time, the all-but omnipotent lord of the world.  Their failures and successes, their hopes and fears, have become eternal - our efforts cannot now abate one jot of them.   Sorrows long buried in the grave, tragedies of which only a fading memory remains, loves immortalized by death's hallowing touch - these have a power, a magic, an untroubled calm, to which no present can attain.

      Year by year, comrades die, hopes prove vain, ideals fade; the enchanted land of youth grows more remote, the road of life more wearisome; the burden of the world increases until the labour and the pain become almost too heavy to be borne; joy fades from the weary nations of the earth and the tyranny of the future saps men's vital force; all that we love is waning, waning from the dying world.  But the past, ever devouring the transient offspring of the present, lives by the universal death; steadily, irresistibly, it adds new trophies to its silent temple, which all the ages build; every great deed, every splendid life, every achievement and every heroic failure, is there enshrined.  On the banks of the River of Time, the sad procession of human generations is marching slowly to the grave; in the quiet country of the past, the march is ended, the tired wanderers rest, and all their weeping is hushed.